Ever since loftus published her first studies on the suggestibility of eyewitness testimony in the 1970s, social scientists, police officers, therapists, and legal practitioners have been aware of the flaws in interview practices. Eyewitness testimony is critically important to the justice system indeed, it is necessary in all criminal trials to reconstruct facts from past events, and eyewitnesses are commonly very important to this effort psychological scientists, however, have challenged many of the assumptions of the. Scientific studies of children’s disclosure of actual sexual abuse are possible when perpetrators record (eg, photograph, videotape, and/or audiotape) the abuse they inflict on children, or.
Describe and evaluate studies of eyewitness testimony (12) one study of eyewitness testimony (ewt) was by loftus and palmer their aim was to see whether asking leading questions had any effect on recall the method used was a laboratory experiment and had two parts to it the first was showing participants (ppts) 7 films of car accidents. • describeat least two studies of conformity ‘describe’ is an ao1 term that means ‘give an the ao2 skills we’re practicing here are interpreting research results and critically evaluating research studies you’ve practised the first skill in a previous essay so we’ll focus on the critical jenness’s study shows that a. Eyewitness memories can be biased by the questions asked at the time of retrieval several famous studies have shown that the question can supply information that the eyewitness will incorporate into the answer.
Others argue that the triers-of-fact need help in evaluating eyewitness testimony and that the scientific literature is mature enough to provide meaningful statements about eyewitness reliability so as to assist the trier-of-fact there are some controversies over how 1980 1987. Despite the fact that social science has been well aware of these problems for decades, eyewitness testimony is still considered particularly powerful in the courtroom. Describe and evaluate the multi-store model of memory (12) describe at least one other research study into misleading information in your answer you should include details of what participants were asked to do and what results were found explain why studies of eyewitness testimony have been criticised as lacking validity (2. Because eyewitness confidence is generally the most important factor that the trier of fact uses in evaluating eyewitness accuracy, increases in eyewitness confidence can cause wrongful convictions factors that increase eyewitness confidence have their greatest effect on an eyewitness’s confidence for inaccurate information ( 5 , 6 . Eyewitness testimony is the research that studies the accuracy of memory after an incident or significant event has taken place the area is interested in the way schemas and reconstructive memory work, and how the mind unconsciously fills in blanks over details that we are unsure of.
How to analyze the accuracy of eyewitness testimony in a criminal case richard a wise, clifford s fishman & martin a safer i introduction in july of 1984, jennifer thompson, a 22-year-old college student. Writing a ‘describe and evaluate a theory’ essay probably the commonest sort of essay question asks you to describe and evaluate one or more psychological theories/explanations of something. Describe and evaluate the multi-store model of memory including research support from baddeley and shallice and warrington (case study: kf) types of long term memory describe and evaluate 3 types of long term memory (a. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information.
Describe and evaluate studies of eyewitness testimony (12) this essay describe and evaluate studies of eyewitness testimony (12) and other 64,000+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on reviewessayscom autor: review • february 6, 2011 • essay • 925 words (4 pages) • 543 views. Vol 1:1 stanford journal of legal studies 25 the problem with eyewitness testimony commentary on a talk by george fisher and barbara tversky laura engelhardt the bedrock of the american judicial process is the honesty of witnesses in trial. In the study, loftus and erin harley, phd, a postdoctoral fellow at the university of california, los angeles, conducted a series of experiments with participants who had 20/20 vision or corrected 20/20 vision.
Outline and evaluate research into the effect of anxiety on eyewitness performance 6 ao1 marks would come from a description of relevant research studies choosing 3 studies, perhaps 1 lab study and 2 real life ones, and describing them in simple paragraphs would be sufficient. The study of eyewitness memory was one of the first topics to being scrutinized when forensic psychology began to establish towards the end of the 19th century. In this article, we discuss why jurors and legal professionals have difficulty evaluating eyewitness testimony we also describe the i-i-eye method for analyzing eyewitness testimony, and a scientific study of the i-i-eye method that shows it can improve jurors’ ability to assess eyewitness accuracy.
Although a limitation of these studies is that subject selection may be biased because they involved participants who chose to enroll in survival school, their findings converge with data from laboratory-based studies of eyewitness testimony under highly stressful situations 41,42 and the misinformation effect 4. Eyewitness testimony 7 in one study, it was found that the presence of a weapon resulted in a focus on the weapon more often and for longer periods of time than if another object was held (loftus. Outline and evaluate the cognitive interview the cognitive interview was created by fisher and gieselman in 1992, the cognitive interview is a memory retrieval technique which aims to bring out more accurate informtation from eye witnesses.